The Fulbe

The Ndaargal International Pulaaku Festival Berlin 2018 is a lot more than the representation of a people: the Fulbe. Only to better understand what means the Pulaaku and why about its expansion, we must refer to the history of the Fulbe:

The Fulbe, called Ful, Fula or Fulani in German and in English, Peul in French, occupy a large part of western Africa, but it is also possible to find them in eastern and central Africa. Originally they are nomads, but today most of them have settled. They are also called the Halpoular – "those who speak poular" – or Fulbe (plural)/Pullo (singular).

There has always been intensive research into the origins of the Fulbe:
- From the migration routes they took from the north-eastern side of the continent up to western Africa.
- From studies on the oral tradition, language and archeology, which have allowed us to further understand the cultural, political, economic and social aspects of the Fulbe.
- DNA analyses revealed fascinating results thanks to modern technology.

Geschichte der FulbeBut, even today we have no clear answer as to where exactly they originated. In this context, it has to be said that many places in which the Fulbe live or have lived are called Fuuta – a term which is already present in ancient texts and could mean "Land of the Foulbé" – therefore, we are finding several places called Fuuta, for example Fuuta-Kukia, Fuuta-Kingi, Fuuta Toro , Fouta-Maacina, Fuuta-Fuladu, Fuuta Jalon, etc ...

The cultural basis of the Fulbe is the Pulaaku, which determines the behavior or the code of conduct of the Fulbe:
- Ethics
– the importance of the community
- Jurisprudence
- Religious principlesFulbe in Egypt

The Pulaaku is ancient. It has existed since the depths of time, and owes its survival to the Poular/Fulfuldé language.

The three pillars of the Pulaagu/Pulaaku are:
1. Munyal: tolerance, calm, self-control
2. Semteende/Ndimaagu: discretion and honesty
3. Hakkile: nurturing of the spirit, science and knowledge
These three pillars are considerable assets which any Fulɓe has to adopt to achieve social harmony.

The commandments of the Pulaagu/Pulaaku:
1. Wata a hersa: never belittle yourself, never provoke self-shame, never let others mock you
2. Wata a hula: never be scared/cultivate courage
3. Wata a fena: never lie
4. Wata Wujju: never steal
5. Wata jaanfo: never betray
6. Wata taj enndam: never cut ties that join beings
7. Wata firtu aadi: always keep your word, respect your word
In addition to these "harméji jeedhidhi", which, according to certain researchers, are said to precede Buddhism, there is an 8th commandment of the Pulaaku, which is very important and mentions generosity:
8. Kala ko hebaa ena rennda: share, cultivate generosity.

Karte Westafrikas-Fulbe Kaisern und Königsreichen
The Fulbe empires in western Africa in the 18th century.

Karte 2

The language of the Fulbe, Fulfulde / Pular is one of the most important and widespread languages of Africa. Because of its grammar, Fulfulde / Pular is generally considered one of the most complex languages in the world and contains a very rich vocabulary.